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Table 1 Depression in RA patients analyzed by demographic characteristics

From: The underrated prevalence of depression in Japanese patients with rheumatoid arthritis - evidence from a Nationwide survey in Japan

Characteristics Overall, N (%) No depression, N (%) Mild depression, N (%) Moderate to severe depression, N (%) P-value
Patients 500 324 (65) 118 (24) 58 (11)  
Age (mean ± SD) 54.28 ± 10.02 56.04 ± 9.91 51.57 ± 10.02 49.93 ± 9.59 <0.001
  ≤ 50 years 178 (36) 94 (29) 53 (45) 31 (54)  
 51–60 years 196 (39) 130 (40) 45 (38) 21 (36)  
  > 60 years 126 (25) 100 (31) 20 (17) 6 (10)  
Gender 0.036
 Male 163 (33) 118 (37) 28 (24) 17 (29)  
 Female 337 (67) 206 (64) 90 (76) 41 (71)  
Marital status 0.004
 Single 97 (19) 49 (15) 34 (29) 14 (24)  
 Married 403 (81) 275 (85) 84 (71) 44 (76)  
Highest Education 0.109
 High school or less 180 (36) 107 (33) 47 (40) 26 (44)  
 College 120 (24) 74 (23) 30 (25) 16 (28)  
 Bachelor’s degree or higher 200 (40) 143 (44) 41 (35) 16 (28)  
Occupation 0.141
 Full-time 164 (33) 112 (34) 36 (30) 16 (28)  
 Part-time 78 (16) 43 (13) 26 (22) 9 (15)  
 Self-employed 37 (7) 28 (9) 6 (5) 3 (5)  
 Housewife 141 (28) 89 (27) 33 (28) 19 (33)  
 Retired 20 (4) 18 (6) 1 (1) 1 (2)  
 Unemployed 57 (11) 32 (10) 16 (14) 9 (15)  
 Other 3 (1) 2 (1) 0 (0) 1 (2)  
Region
 Hokkaido 26 (5) 15 (5) 4 (3) 7 (12) 0.038
 Tohoku 23 (5) 17 (5) 4 (3) 2 (3) 0.645
 Kanto 230 (46) 147 (45) 53 (46) 30 (52) 0.646
 Chubu 63 (13) 45 (14) 10 (8) 8 (14) 0.303
 Kansai 95 (19) 58 (18) 30 (25) 7 (12) 0.073
 Chugoku 21 (4) 14 (4) 7 (6) 0 (0) 0.180
 Shikoku 11 (2) 6 (2) 2 (2) 3 (5) 0.259
 Kyushu 31 (6) 22 (7) 8 (7) 1 (2) 0.323
Annual individual income
  < 3.7 M Yen 286 (57) 173 (53) 73 (62) 40 (69) 0.272
 3.7–7.7 M Yen 105 (21) 74 (23) 22 (19) 9 (15)  
  > 7.7 M Yen 45 (9) 34 (11) 7 (6) 4 (7)  
I don’t know 64 (13) 43 (13) 16 (13) 5 (9)  
Time since diagnosis (mean ± SD) 10.67 ± 8.63 10.45 ± 8.99 11.07 ± 8.07 11.12 ± 7.63 0.242
  ≤ 5 years 165 (33) 111 (34) 38 (32) 16 (28)  
 6–10 years 146 (29) 101 (31) 27 (23) 18 (31)  
  > 10 years 189 (38) 112 (35) 53 (45) 24 (41)  
Current Medication
 Painkillers (NSAIDs/oral pain medication) 80 (16) 39 (12) 27 (23) 14 (24) 0.005
 Steroid 110 (22) 66 (20) 29 (25) 15 (26) 0.481
DMARDs 0.112
 csDMARDs 329 (66) 214 (66) 79 (67) 36 (62)  
 csDMARDs + biologic agent 113 (23) 65 (20) 30 (25) 18 (31)  
 Biologic agent 58 (12) 45 (14) 9 (8) 4 (7)  
Functional impairment      
 J-HAQ score (mean ± SD) 0.40 ± 0.81 0.26 ± 0.55 0.52 ± 0.78 0.98 ± 1.50 <0.001
Comorbidity with depression
 Depression 25 (5) 7 (2) 6 (5) 12 (21) <0.001
Comorbidity other than depression
 Hypertension 79 (16) 52 (16) 16 (14) 11 (19) 0.638
 High cholesterol 42 (8) 24 (7) 11 (9) 7 (12) 0.458
 Diabetes 26 (5) 15 (5) 10 (9) 1 (2) 0.122
 Migraines 11 (2) 0 (0) 5 (4) 6 (10) <0.001
 Heart condition 8 (2) 3 (1) 2 (2) 3 (5) 0.060
 Anxiety 8 (2) 3 (1) 2 (2) 3 (5) 0.060
  1. N number, % percentage, SD standard deviation, M Million, NSAID nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, RA rheumatoid arthritis, DMARDs disease modifying anti-rheumatic drugs, csDMARDs conventional synthetic disease modifying anti-rheumatic drugs, J-HAQ Japanese version of the Stanford Health Assessment Questionnaire