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Table 2 Determinants of depression among RA patients

From: The underrated prevalence of depression in Japanese patients with rheumatoid arthritis - evidence from a Nationwide survey in Japan

Characteristics Univariate analysis Multivariate analysis
ORs (95%CI) P-value ORs (95%CI) P-value
Age 0.95 (0.93–0.97) <0.001 0.96 (0.94–0.98) 0.001
Gender (Reference: Male)
 Female 1.59 (1.07–2.38) 0.023 0.86 (0.49–1.51) 0.599
Marital status (Reference: Single)
 Married 0.52 (0.34–0.80) 0.003 0.68 (0.40–1.17) 0.168
Highest Education (Reference: High school or less)
 College 0.91 (0.51–1.47) 0.690 0.89 (0.53–1.47) 0.639
 Bachelor’s degree or higher 0.57 (0.38–0.87) 0.010 0.61 (0.38–1.00) 0.050
Occupation (Reference: Full-time)
 Part-time 1.63 (0.96–2.78) 0.072 1.26 (0.68–2.35) 0.459
 Self-employed 0.70 (0.31–1.58) 0.396 0.85 (0.35–2.06) 0.725
 Housewife 1.28 (0.81–2.05) 0.289 1.09 (0.59–2.00) 0.781
 Retired 0.25 (0.06–1.10) 0.067 0.46 (0.94–2.30) 0.348
 Unemployed 1.69 (0.93–3.08) 0.086 1.14 (0.55–2.37) 0.728
 Other 1.60 (0.12–19.85) 0.715 1.48 (0.08–25.86) 0.787
Region
 Hokkaido 1.71 (0.77–3.21) 0.212   
 Tohoku 0.64 (0.25–1.65) 0.361   
 Kanto 1.10 (0.77–1.59) 0.584   
 Chubu 0.75 (0.42–1.34) 0.333   
 Kansai 1.09 (0.70–1.71) 0.692   
 Chugoku 0.79 (0.32–1.92) 0.600   
 Shikoku 1.88 (0.57–6.19) 0.296   
 Kyushu 0.68 (0.31–1.48) 0.336   
Annual individual income (Reference <3.7 M Yen)
 3.7–7.7 M Yen 0.63 (0.39–1.01) 0.058 0.78 (0.46–1.34) 0.058
  > 7.7 M Yen 0.50 (0.24–1.03) 0.059 0.75 (0.31–1.79) 0.059
Time since diagnosis (Reference: ≤5 years)
 6–10 years 0.96 (0.60–1.54) 0.872 0.99 (0.59–1.65) 0.964
  > 10 years 1.40 (0.91–2.13) 0.124 1.13 (0.69–1.87) 0.624
J-HAQ score 2.01 (1.59–2.53) <0.001 1.86 (1.40–2.48) <0.001
Comorbidity
 Hypertension 0.99 (0.60–1.64) 0.986   
 High cholesterol 1.46 (0.78–2.72) 0.233   
 Diabetes 1.15 (0.54–2.45) 0.716   
 Migraines 13.23 (4.29–40.81) <0.001 9.27 (0.99–32.19) 0.087
 Heart condition 3.84 (1.01–14.61) 0.048 4.18 (0.95–18.30) 0.058
 Anxiety 3.84 (1.01–14.61) 0.048 2.20 (0.47–10.27) 0.317
Current medication
 Pain killer (NSAIDs/oral pain medication) 2.11 (1.34–3.34) 0.001 1.60 (0.94–2.72) 0.084
 Steroid 1.30 (0.85–1.98) 0.228   
DMARDs (Reference: csDMARDs)
 csDMARDs + biologic agent 1.40 (0.92–2.15) 0.117 0.82 (0.49–1.37) 0.459
 Biologic agent 0.54 (0.28–1.05) 0.067 0.36 (0.17–0.75) 0.007
  1. Bold numbers indicate significance. Univariate analysis: significant p value < 0.2, multivariate analysis (stepwise approach): significant value = 0.05. ORs odds ratio, CI confidence interval, RA rheumatoid arthritis, M Million, NSAID nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, DMARDs disease modifying anti-rheumatic drugs, csDMARDs conventional synthetic disease modifying anti-rheumatic drugs, J-HAQ Japanese version of the Stanford Health Assessment Questionnaire