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Table 2 Gout Predictor Variables, Univariable and Multivariable Analyses* Data are given as number (%) of patients

From: An evaluation of gout visits in the United States for the years 2007 to 2011

    Univariable Multivariable
Parameter Gout (%) No Gout (%) OR (95% CI) P OR (95% CI) P
Observation Period
 2009–2011 7,849,421 (1.3) 580,942,174 (98.7) 1.28 (1.10–1.49) 0.0010 1.24 (1.02–1.52) 0.0346
 2007–2008 3,920,276 (1.0) 371,919,526 (99.0) Referent -- Referent --
Age Group (years)
 ≥ 65 7,113,034 (2.4) 291,919,369 (97.6) 8.64 (7.04–10.60) < 0.0001 4.94 (3.69–6.62) < 0.0001
 45–64 3,772,290 (1.1) 347,436,851 (98.9) 3.85 (3.11–4.77) < 0.0001 2.52 (1.97–3.21) < 0.0001
 20–44 884,372 (0.3) 313,505,459 (99.7) Referent Referent
Sex
 Female 3,055,558 (0.5) 584,338,467 (99.5) 0.22 (0.20–0.25) < 0.0001 0.20 (0.18–0.24) < 0.0001
 Male 8,714,139 (2.3) 368,523,233 (97.7) Referent Referent
Race
 Other 574,306 (1.7) 32,942,130 (98.3) 1.43 (1.03–1.99) 0.0332 2.02 (1.47–2.77) < 0.0001
 African-American 1,226,437 (1.2) 98,377,632 (98.8) 1.02 (0.82–1.27) 0.8513 1.33 (1.03–1.72) 0.0271
 Caucasian 7,264,368 (1.2) 595,109,707 (98.8) Referent -- Referent --
Ethnicity
 Hispanic/Latino 511,614 (0.6) 78,750,878 (99.4) 0.49 (0.36–0.67) < 0.0001 0.64 (0.48–0.86) 0.0032
 Non-Hispanic/Latino 8,252,946 (1.3) 622,092,211 (98.7) Referent Referent
Region
 Northeast 2,019,734 (1.1) 187,761,102 (98.9) 0.90 (0.72–1.13) 0.3629 0.80 (0.62–1.03) 0.0823
 Midwest 3,053,963 (1.5) 203,721,333 (98.5) 1.25 (1.04–1.52) 0.0169 1.16 (0.95–1.43) 0.1501
 West 2,367,739 (1.2) 199,303,020 (98.8) 0.99 (0.80–1.24) 0.9580 0.86 (0.67–1.10) 0.2296
 South 4,328,261 (1.2) 362,166,243 (98.8) Referent -- Referent --
MSA
 Non-MSA 1,709,090 (1.4) 119,137,057 (98.6) 1.18 (0.93–1.52) 0.1636 1.01 (0.77–1.32) 0.9462
 MSA 10,060,607 (1.2) 833,724,642 (98.8) Referent -- Referent --
Insurance Status
 Other 407,967 (0.4) 98,328,703 (99.6) 0.43 (0.32–0.58) < 0.0001 0.51 (0.36–0.72) 0.0001
 Medicaid 407,549 (0.5) 87,966,848 (99.5) 0.48 (0.35–0.66) < 0.0001 0.56 (0.39–0.80) 0.0014
 Medicare 6,193,910 (2.2) 274,708,378 (97.8) 2.35 (2.07–2.68) < 0.0001 0.93 (0.74–1.15) 0.4846
 Private Insurance 4,382,477 (0.9) 457,347,665 (99.1) Referent Referent
Setting Type
 Hospital Emergency 353,199 (0.4) 94,359,329 (99.6) 0.28 (0.23–0.33) < 0.0001 0.42 (0.34–0.51) < 0.0001
 Hospital Outpatient 892,347 (1.1) 77,244,784 (98.9) 0.86 (0.71–1.03) 0.0994 1.05 (0.88–1.26) 0.5718
 Physician Office 10,524,151 (1.3) 781,257,587 (98.7) Referent Referent
Diuretic Use
 Yes 3,575,442 (5.0) 67,667,807 (95.0) 5.71 (5.04–6.47) < 0.0001 4.00 (3.37–4.75) < 0.0001
 No 8,194,254 (0.9) 885,193,893 (99.1) Referent Referent
  1. MSA Metropolitan Statistical Area
  2. * Survey weighting and clusters accounted for reflecting unbiased, national annual estimates of visit occurrences for the portion of the population meeting the study inclusion/exclusion criteria
  3. Note that per the model fitting criterion described in the methods section, no variables were excluded from the multivariable model