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Table 1 Summary of Included Studies

From: The role of vitamin D testing and replacement in fibromyalgia: a systematic literature review

Author Year Study Design Country Definition of FMS Control Characteristic Season of Measurement Age of Patients Age of Controls Sex No. Patients No. of Controls Threshold of Vit D deficiency (ng/ml) Method of Vit D measure NC-Ottawa Scale
Al-Allaf et al. 2003 CSS UK ACR 1990 Age & sex matched healthy controls No mention 42.5 ± 3.6 42.5 ± 4.3 F 40 37 8 No mention 7
Warner et al. 2008 CSS & RCT USA ACR 1990. Tender points exam omitted Osteoarthritis affecting fewer than 3 joints. Not age or sex matched. Spring & Summer (May-Aug) 54.4 ± 11.7 66.4 ± 10.5 M + F 184 104 20 Liquid chromatography 5
N/A for RCT component
Tandeter et al. 2009 CSS Israel ACR 1990 Age & sex matched healthy controls No mention 43.83 ± 7.57 40.37 ± 9.85 F 68 82 20 ELISA 6
Atherton et al. 2009 CSS UK ACR 1990 Participants without chronic pain in 1958 nationwide biomedical survey Autumn–Spring (Sep-Mar) 45 45 M + F 743 5593 20 ELISA 7
Ulusoy et al. 2010 CSS Turkey ACR 1990 Age & sex matched healthy controls Spring & Summer (May–June) 20–40 20–40 F 30 30 20 Liquid chromatography 7
McBeth et al. 2010 CSS Italy, Belgium, Poland, Sweden, UK, Spain, Estonia, Hungary ACR 1990 Individuals with no pain No mention 40–79 40–79 M + F 263 1262 20 radioimmunoassay 7
de Rezende Pena et al. 2010 CSS Brazil ACR 1990 Individuals with no pain Summer in S. hemisphere (Nov-Jan) 18–60, 44.87 ± 8.57 18–60, 32.03 ± 10.57 M + F 87 92 15 Liquid chromatography 5
Olama et al. 2013 CSS Egypt ACR 1990 Age & sex matched healthy controls Spring & Summer (May–July) 32.3 ± 9.4 33.1 ± 9.7 F 50 50 20 ELISA 7
Okumus et al. 2013 CSS Turkey ACR1990 Mechanical low back pain; age & sex matched Winter & Spring (Nov-Mar) 41.23 ± 4.8 39.48 ± 4.08 F 40 40 37.5 radioimmunoassay 5
Mateos et al. 2014 CSS Spain No mention Age & sex matched healthy controls Autumn & Winter (Nov-Dec) 51 ± 9.6 51.3 ± 9.9 F 205 205 8 chemiluminescence 5
Wepner et al. 2014 RCT Austria ACR 1990 & 2010 Individuals with FMS not receiving vit D supplement Summer 48.37 ± 5.301 48.37 ± 5.301 M + F 15 15 32 No mention N/A
Okyay et al. 2016 CSS Turkey ACR1990 Age & sex matched healthy controls Summer 36.97 ± 8.95 35.75 ± 10.67 F 79 80 20 ELISA 7
Yildirim et al. 2016 CSS Turkey ACR 1990 & 2010 Age & sex matched healthy controls No mention 49.4 ± 9.2 50.8 ± 8.8 F 99 99 20 ELISA 6
Maafi et al. 2016 CSS Iran ACR 1990 & 2010 Age & sex matched healthy controls Spring–Autumn (Apr-Sep) 37.96 ± 9.8 32.63 ± 10.1 F 74 68 20 chemiluminescence 6
  1. CSS Cross-sectional studies, RCT Randomized controlled studies, ACR American College of Rheumatology, FMS Fibromyalgia syndrome, NC Newcastle, M Male, F Female