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Table 2 Average annual healthcare utilization among gout patients with and without CKD by age group

From: Incident gout and chronic Kidney Disease: healthcare utilization and survival

  At diagnosisc Year from diagnosisd Unit Change in Healthcare Utilization Per Year (95% CI)e,f
1 2 3 4 5
AGE 25–54 YEARS
 Number of patients 3537 3537 3498 3443 3408 3370  
  % Follow-up without CKD 3272 100.0% 98.9% 97.6% 96.6% 95.6%  
  % Follow-up with CKD 265 100.0% 98.9% 94.7% 93.8% 91.5%  
 Average annual total number
  General healthcare utilization
   General practitioner visits
    Without CKD 7.1 ± 8.0 10.3 ± 9.5 9.6 ± 9.1 10.0 ± 9.2 10.3 ± 9.2 10.5 ± 9.3 0.03 (− 0.5–0.10)
    With CKD 15.0 ± 11.6 18.3 ± 14.1 17.1 ± 12.7 17.5 ± 13.7 17.4 ± 14.2 17.7 ± 13.7
   Specialist visitsa
    Without CKD 0.51 ± 1.25 0.83 ± 1.63 0.60 ± 1.57 0.59 ± 1.38 0.58 ± 1.40 0.58 ± 1.41 −0.09 (− 0.11– − 0.07)
    With CKD 0.67 ± 1.44 0.80 ± 1.42 0.52 ± 1.26 0.55 ± 1.12 0.50 ± 1.14 0.43 ± 0.93
   Hospital admissions
    Without CKD 0.13 ± 0.55 0.24 ± 0.75 0.19 ± 0.72 0.18 ± 0.74 0.19 ± 0.67 0.19 ± 0.67 −0.05 (− 0.08– − 0.02)
    With CKD 0.51 ± 1.21 0.81 ± 1.82 0.70 ± 1.45 0.60 ± 1.33 0.58 ± 1.26 0.57 ± 1.33
   Imaging useb
    Without CKD 1.03 ± 1.97 1.23 ± 2.24 0.95 ± 2.08 0.93 ± 2.04 0.95 ± 2.12 0.95 ± 2.09 −0.08 (− 0.10– − 0.07)
    With CKD 1.99 ± 3.33 2.63 ± 4.25 1.93 ± 3.92 1.55 ± 3.15 1.52 ± 2.99 2.07 ± 4.36
  Gout-related healthcare utilization
 Allopurinol purchase months
  Without CKD 0.40 ± 1.59 1.64 ± 3.07 1.64 ± 3.22 1.85 ± 3.42 1.94 ± 3.51 2.17 ± 3.70 0.13 (0.10–0.16)
  With CKD 1.14 ± 2.68 3.49 ± 4.15 3.67 ± 4.24 3.92 ± 4.27 4.00 ± 4.39 4.36 ± 4.61
 Serum uric acid testing
  Without CKD 0.91 ± 1.24 1.49 ± 1.59 1.04 ± 1.46 1.10 ± 2.25 1.16 ± 3.84 1.18 ± 2.88 −0.04 (−0.06– −0.02)
  With CKD 3.20 ± 4.70 4.02 ± 7.15 3.64 ± 6.32 3.79 ± 8.98 3.41 ± 5.76 3.95 ± 7.58
AGE 55+ YEARS
 Number of patients 9403 9403 8674 8181 7675 7231  
  % Follow-up without CKD 5012 100.0% 96.1% 93.4% 90.2% 87.6%  
  % Follow-up with CKD 4391 100.0% 87.9% 79.7% 71.8% 64.7%  
 Average annual total number
  General healthcare utilization
   General practitioner visits
    Without CKD 12.8 ± 11.3 16.1 ± 12.4 15.9 ± 12.2 16.3 ± 12.4 16.6 ± 12.7 16.5 ± 12.6 −0.79 (−0.88 – −0.70)
    With CKD 18.4 ± 14.5 21.1 ± 15.5 20.8 ± 14.8 21.0 ± 15.2 20.8 ± 15.0 20.6 ± 15.2 −0.34 (− 0.48 – − 0.20)
   Specialist visitsa
    Without CKD 0.72 ± 1.50 0.88 ± 1.64 0.73 ± 1.50 0.71 ± 1.49 0.69 ± 1.44 0.64 ± 1.34 −0.04 (− 0.05 – − 0.03)
    With CKD 0.69 ± 1.47 0.82 ± 1.58 0.67 ± 1.40 0.65 ± 1.42 0.63 ± 1.39 0.59 ± 1.33 −0.11 (− 0.13 – − 0.09)
   Hospital admissions
    Without CKD 0.29 ± 0.78 0.58 ± 1.23 0.44 ± 1.04 0.44 ± 1.03 0.43 ± 1.08 0.43 ± 1.04 −0.03 (− 0.04 – − 0.02)
    With CKD 0.46 ± 1.11 0.84 ± 1.55 0.64 ± 1.33 0.63 ± 1.35 0.62 ± 1.37 0.61 ± 1.33
   Imaging useb
    Without CKD 1.71 ± 2.95 2.14 ± 3.40 1.70 ± 3.06 1.57 ± 2.82 1.50 ± 2.82 1.52 ± 2.84 −0.07 (− 0.09 – − 0.06)
    With CKD 2.01 ± 3.30 2.46 ± 3.93 1.86 ± 3.38 1.67 ± 3.17 1.54 ± 3.03 1.45 ± 2.93
  Gout-related healthcare utilization
 Allopurinol purchase months
  Without CKD 0.79 ± 2.49 2.20 ± 3.77 2.33 ± 3.97 2.51 ± 4.11 2.75 ± 4.26 2.97 ± 4.48 −0.15 (−0.17 – − 0.12)
  With CKD 0.98 ± 2.72 2.71 ± 4.05 2.86 ± 4.26 3.02 ± 4.35 3.19 ± 4.43 3.39 ± 4.63 0.03 (−0.03–0.05)
 Serum uric acid testing
  Without CKD 1.37 ± 2.02 2.11 ± 3.50 1.76 ± 3.64 1.68 ± 2.36 1.73 ± 2.59 1.80 ± 2.80 −0.03 (− 0.04– − 0.02)
  With CKD 2.02 ± 2.94 2.86 ± 4.23 2.42 ± 4.07 2.31 ± 3.46 2.32 ± 3.54 2.34 ± 3.69
  1. Note: CKD = chronic kidney disease
  2. aSpecialists include rheumatologist or orthopedist
  3. bImaging use includes x-ray, CT, ultrasound or MRI
  4. cData were collected during the year prior to diagnosis
  5. dGroup differences were significant for all models at p < 0.001
  6. eA single rate of change is presented when there is no statistically significant difference in change over time by group
  7. fAll changes in rates from year 1 to year 5 were statistically significant at p < 0.05 with the exception of patients 25–54 years and general practitioner visits