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Table 1 Baseline characteristics by diabetes mellitus status and ever use of glucocorticoids during follow-up (N = 9085)

From: The effect of glucocorticoid therapy on mortality in patients with rheumatoid arthritis and concomitant type II diabetes: a retrospective cohort study

 DM at baselineNo DM at baselineDM during FUa
All subjectsNever usersEver usersAll subjectsNever usersEver usersAll subjectsNever usersEver users
N = 1034N = 512N = 522N = 8051N = 4026N = 4025N = 761N = 269N = 492
Females, n (%)652 (63.1)325 (63.5)327 (62.6)5600 (69.6)2878 (71.5)2722 (67.6)503 (66.1)176 (65.4)327 (66.5)
Age at baseline (years), mean (standard deviation (SD))64.42 (13.0)63 (13.6)65.81 (12.3)58.51 (14.7)55.94 (14.6)61.07 (14.4)64.63 (12.8)62.4 (12.9)65.86 (12.5)
Body Mass Index in year prior to baseline
 mean (SD)29.77 (6.5)29.78 (6.7)29.77 (6.3)27.14 (5.5)27.17 (5.5)27.1 (5.4)29.86 (6.9)30.71 (6.8)29.35 (6.9)
 Missing (%)180 (17.4)87 (17.0)93 (17.8)3669 (45.6)1853 (46.0)1816 (45.1)224 (29.4)68 (25.3)156 (31.7)
Smoking status at baseline, n (%)
 Never smoker407 (39.4)203 (39.7)204 (39.1)3337 (41.5)1748 (43.4)1589 (39.5)234 (30.8)80 (29.7)154 (31.3)
 Ever smoker600 (58.0)293 (57.2)307 (58.8)3988 (49.5)1949 (48.4)2039 (50.7)505 (66.4)182 (67.7)323 (65.7)
 Missing2 (0.2)1 (0.2)1 (0.2)41 (0.5)20 (0.5)21 (0.5)5 (0.7)1 (0.4)4 (0.8)
SES quintile at baseline (In subset), n (%)
 First (least deprived)214 (20.7)102 (19.9)112 (21.5)1830 (22.7)910 (22.6)920 (22.9)165 (21.7)60 (22.3)105 (21.3)
 Second224 (21.7)98 (19.1)126 (24.1)1993 (24.8)1023 (25.4)970 (24.1)182 (23.9)65 (24.2)117 (23.8)
 Third215 (20.8)121 (23.6)94 (18.0)1731 (21.5)839 (20.8)892 (22.2)156 (20.5)62 (23.1)94 (19.1)
 Fourth229 (22.2)119 (23.2)110 (21.1)1470 (18.3)741 (18.4)729 (18.1)161 (21.2)49 (18.2)112 (22.8)
 Fifth (most deprived)150 (14.5)71 (13.9)79 (15.1)986 (12.3)493 (12.3)493 (12.3)92 (12.1)32 (11.9)60 (12.2)
 Missing2 (0.2)1 (0.2)1 (0.2)41 (0.5)20 (0.5)21 (0.5)6 (0.8)1 (0.4)5 (1.0)
Charlson comorbidity index at baseline, mean (SD)2.57 (0.8)2.48 (0.8)2.66 (0.8)1.32 (0.7)1.23 (0.6)1.42 (0.7)2.63 (0.8)2.39 (0.7)2.76 (0.8)
Prior history of macrovascular diseases, n (%)113 (10.9)41 (8.0)72 (13.8)297 (3.7)108 (2.7)189 (4.7)77 (10.1)16 (6.0)61 (12.4)
History of GC use in year prior to baseline, n (%)325 (31.4)42 (8.2)283 (54.2)1861 (23.1)256 (6.4)1605 (39.9)299 (39.3)3 (1.1)296 (60.2)
Duration of diabetes at baseline (yrs)
 Mean (SD)4.59 (3.7)4.88 (3.8)4.31 (3.6)N/AN/AN/AN/AN/AN/A
Number of anti-DM medication prior to baseline
 0525 (50.8)264 (50.6)261 (51.0)N/AN/AN/AN/AN/AN/A
 1482 (46.6)249 (47.7)233 (45.5)N/AN/AN/AN/AN/AN/A
 226 (2.5)8 (1.5)18 (3.5)N/AN/AN/AN/AN/AN/A
 31 (0.1)1 (0.2)0 (0)N/AN/AN/AN/AN/AN/A
Prescribed insulin prior to follow-up, n (%)155 (15.0)86 (16.8)69 (13.2)N/AN/AN/AN/AN/AN/A
DMARDs prescribed during follow-up, n (%)
 Methotrexate633 (61.2)309 (60.4)324 (62.1)5012 (62.3)2386 (59.3)2626 (65.2)353 (46.4)110 (40.9)243 (49.4)
 Hydroxychloroquine261 (25.2)132 (25.8)129 (24.7)2304 (28.6)1129 (28.0)1175 (29.2)138 (18.1)49 (18.2)89 (18.1)
 Sulfasalazine372 (36.0)171 (33.4)201 (38.5)3333 (41.4)1591 (39.5)1742 (43.3)207 (27.2)80 (29.7)127 (25.8)
 Leflunomide75 (7.3)28 (5.5)47 (9.0)719 (8.9)264 (6.6)455 (11.3)57 (7.5)13 (4.8)44 (8.9)
 Other70 (6.8)15 (2.9)55 (10.5)549 (6.8)117 (2.9)432 (10.7)54 (7.1)6 (2.2)48 (9.8)
Average GC dose during follow up, mean (SD)4.93 (14.0)09.8 (18.5)4.38 (6.3)08.75 (6.4)5.02 (6.3)07.77 (6.4)
  1. aCharacteristics at time of diabetes mellitus diagnosis