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Table 1 Characteristics of patients and controls

From: Use of antidepressants and benzodiazepine-related hypnotics before and after initiation of TNF-α inhibitors or non-biological systemic treatment in patients with rheumatoid arthritis, psoriatic arthritis or ankylosing spondylitis

 TNF NBS 
N6256 13,241 
Women, %61.6 60.5 
 Age mean (SD)52.0(14.5)56.1(16.3)
Women53.1(14.5)56.0(16.6)
Men50.3(14.3)56.3(15.8)
Antidepressants
 Baseline rate, %11.8 10.9 
 Controls, %6.6 7.6 
 Difference (95% c.i.)5.2(4.35–5.99)3.3(2.77–3.87)
Benzodiazepine-related hypnotics
 Baseline rate, %10.7 10.4 
 Controls, %6.6 7.6 
 Difference (95% c.i.)4.13.34–4.922.82.25–3.33
Number of drugs (substances, 3 months before index)
 Patients
  mean (SD)6.9(4.2)6.5(3.8)
 Controls
  mean (SD)2.0(3.0)2.3(3.1)
Number of outpatient visits (past 12 months)
 Patients
  mean (SD)5.6(4.1)3.0(3.7)
 Controls
  mean (SD)0.8(2.3)0.8(2.4)
Proportion, at least one hospitalization (past 12 months)
 Patients, %20 21 
 Controls, %9 10 
  1. TNF TNF-α inhibitors, NBS Non-biologic systemic