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Table 2 Incidence of depression and/or anxiety in ankylosing spondylitis

From: The incidence of depression and anxiety in patients with ankylosing spondylitis: a systematic review and meta-analysis

Author, yearOutcomeMethod of assessmentOverallMenWomen
Wu, 2017 [19]depressionICD 9: 296.2, 296.3, 300.4, 309, 309.1, 311aRRc: 1.34 (1.23–1.47)  
Shen, 2016 [20]depressionICD 9: 296.2, 296.3, 300.4, 311aHRa: 1.72 (1.30–2.27)aHRd, e: 1.83 (1.27–2.63)aHRd, e: 1.54 (1.01–2.36)
anxietyICD 9: 300.0, 300.2, 300.3, 308.3, 309.81aHRb: 1.85 (1.37–2.49)aHRd, e: 2.37 (1.64–3.42)aHRd, e: 1.12 (0.65–1.93)
Meesters, 2014 [23]depressionICD 10: F32, F33RR: 1.63 (1.40–1.89)RR: 1.49 (1.20–1.89)RR: 1.81 (1.44–2.24)
Sundquist, 2008 [24]depressionICD 8, 9, 10; not listed SIR: 1.27 (0.46–2.79)SIR: 0.89 (0.08–3.28)
  1. Abbreviations: ICD International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems, (a) HR adjusted hazard ratio (reported in study), RR unadjusted rate ratio (reported in study), SIR standardized incidence ratios
  2. aAdjusted for age, gender, comorbidities (hypertension, diabetes mellitus, dyslipidemia, coronary artery disease, congestive heart failure, chronic pulmonary disease, malignancy), urbanization, and income; bAdjusted for age, gender, comorbidities (hypertension, diabetes mellitus, dyslipidemia, coronary artery disease, congestive heart failure, chronic pulmonary disease, malignancy), urbanization, and income; cAdjusted for age, gender, comorbidities (cardiovascular disease, cardiovascular disease risk, immune disorders, malignancies), obesity conditions, diabetes, smoking, outpatient care utilization, enrollment history, and year. dAdjusted for age, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, dyslipidemia, coronary artery disease, congestive heart failure, chronic pulmonary disease, malignancy, urbanization, and income; eObtained as supplementary data from study authors