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Table 2 Associations Between Treatment Initiation and Change in HbA1c in Patients with Baseline HbA1c ≥ 7

From: Impact of tumor necrosis factor inhibitors and methotrexate on diabetes mellitus among patients with inflammatory arthritis

Variable Univariable Model Multivariable Model
βa 95% CI βa 95%CI
Treatment initiation
 Methotrexate Ref Ref
 TNFi 0.20 −0.04, 0.43 0.22 0.004, 0.43
 Metformin −0.48 −0.66, − 0.30 −0.38 − 0.52, − 0.23
Age (years) 0.01 − 0.01, 0.03 −0.002 − 0.02, 0.01
Sex (female) −0.25 − 0.38, − 0.12 −0.20 − 0.30, − 0.10
Baseline HbA1c −0.68 − 0.73, − 0.63 −0.68 − 0.73, − 0.62
Atrial Fibrillation 0.24 0.03, 0.45   
CAD 0.20 0.06, 0.33   
Cardiomyopathy 0.35 0.02, 0.69 0.30 0.03, 0.57
Other CTD −0.42 −0.76, −0.08 −0.43 − 0.64, − 0.22
CVD 0.24 0.06, 0.41   
Dementia 0.50 0.19, 0.82   
Hypertension 0.25 0.05, 0.45   
Dyslipidemia 0.28 0.09, 0.46 0.15 0.01, 0.29
Myocardial Infarction 0.66 0.26, 1.06 0.46 0.07, 0.85
PVD 0.28 0.08, 0.48   
Pulmonary Embolism 0.58 0.14, 1.03   
  1. aBeta-coefficients are interpreted as the mean difference in the outcome (HbA1c) in the target group (TNF or Metformin) minus the reference group (MTX)
  2. Variables tested that were not significant at the univariable stage were not included in this table: The following variables are not significant at the univariable stage: anemia, angina, anxiety, aortic aneurysm, asthma, baseline diabetes medications, baseline methotrexate, baseline TNFi, bipolar disorder, cancer, chronic kidney disease, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, congestive heart failure, coronary heart disease, degenerative disc disease, depression, diabetic retinopathy, giant cell arteritis, hypothyroidism, inflammatory bowel disease, liver disease, lung disease, metabolic syndrome, mixed connective tissue disease, obesity, obstructive sleep apnea, osteoarthritis, peptic ulcer disease, peripheral arterial disease, polymyalgia rheumatica, pregnancy, psoriasis, other psychiatric disorders, rheumatoid arthritis-lung, SICCA syndrome, sleep disorder, systemic lupus erythematous, systemic sclerosis, and uveitis
  3. Abbreviations: CAD Coronary artery disease, CTD Connective tissue disease (ICD9 code 710.9, not inclusive of SLE, sicca, or scleroderma), CVD Cerebrovascular disease, HbA1c Hemoglobin A1c, PVD Peripheral vascular disease, TNFi Tumor necrosis factor inhibitor