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Table 2 Association of baseline variables with HAQ-DI and EQ-5D-3L index scores in biologic DMARD-naïve patients

From: Factors associated with disability in patients with rheumatoid arthritis with persistent moderate disease activity: a retrospective cohort study

Baseline variable 12-month HAQ-DI score 12-month change in HAQ-DI score 12-month EQ-5D-3L score 12-month change in EQ-5D-3L score
Univariate Multivariate Univariate Multivariate Univariate Multivariate Univariate Multivariate
β P β P β P β P β P β P β P β P
Age 0.01 0.017 0.00 0.284 0.00 0.084 0.00 0.035 0.00 0.595 0.00 0.849
Male sex −0.36 0.010 −0.19 0.134 −0.01 0.948 0.24 0.182 0.30 0.149
White Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref
Black 0.25 0.105 −0.06 0.547 −0.52 0.013 −0.44 0.017 −0.12 0.086 −0.16 0.010
Asian −0.39 0.113 −0.15 0.354 0.34 0.246 −0.15 0.571 0.07 0.495 0.06 0.506
Mixed −0.17 0.675 −0.04 0.888 0.47 0.329 0.21 0.610 0.24 0.139 0.16 0.268
Other 0.16 0.571 0.17 0.357 −0.61 0.100 −0.52 0.095 −0.08 0.523 −0.13 0.207
Disease duration 0.01 0.037 0.01 0.208 0.01 0.197 0.00 0.941 0.00 0.854
RF positive −0.45 < 0.001 −0.19 0.051 −0.06 0.486 0.07 0.708 −0.10 0.102
Corticosteroids −0.02 0.906 0.05 0.685 0.23 0.365 0.30 0.710
DAS28-ESR 0.21 0.048 −0.01 0.881 −0.08 0.254 −0.05 0.708 0.05 0.282
Swollen joint count −0.06 0.002 −0.02 0.227 −0.01 0.415 0.08 0.006 0.04 0.184 0.00 0.664
Tender joint count 0.01 0.637 0.00 0.926 0.00 0.853 0.00 0.576
PtGA 0.01 < 0.001 0.00 0.225 0.00 0.008 0.00 0.643 −0.01 < 0.001 0.00 0.502 0.00 0.069 0.00 0.197
ESR 0.00 0.626 0.00 0.971 0.00 0.678 0.00 0.662
DMARD monotherapy Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref
DMARD combination 0.05 0.646 0.07 0.340 −0.40 0.008 −0.44 0.002 −0.08 0.138
No DMARDs −0.65 0.171 −0.10 0.738 −0.01 0.989 −0.48 0.300 −0.26 0.160
HAQ-DI 0.79 < 0.001 0.67 < 0.001 −0.21 < 0.001 −0.21 < 0.001 −0.65 < 0.001 −0.57 < 0.001 0.01 0.739
EQ-5D-3L index −1.30 < 0.001 −0.45 0.119 0.00 0.977 1.52 < 0.001 0.27 0.527 −0.54 < 0.001 −0.73 < 0.001
EQ-5D-3L pain 0.47 < 0.001 −0.17 0.272 −0.09 0.347 −0.76 < 0.001 −0.11 0.623 0.20 < 0.001 −0.05 0.497
EQ-5D-3L anxiety/depression 0.34 < 0.001 0.11 0.242 0.003 0.621 −0.56 < 0.001 −0.56 0.089 0.10 0.008 −0.04 0.353
  1. β- and P-values are from linear regression models that included endpoint HAQ-DI score, endpoint EQ-5D-3L index score (rank-transformed), 12-month change in HAQ-DI score or 12-month change in EQ-5D-3L index score as the response variable and each baseline variable as the explanatory variable (univariate model) or all baseline variables with P-values < 0.1 from univariate analysis (multivariate model); P-values shown in bold are significant (< 0.05)
  2. Abbreviations: DAS28-ESR Disease Activity Score for 28-joint count based on erythrocyte sedimentation rate, DMARD disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drug, EQ-5D-3L 3-level EuroQol 5-Dimensions questionnaire, ESR erythrocyte sedimentation rate, HAQ-DI Health Assessment Questionnaire-Disability Index, PtGA Patient Global Assessment of Disease Activity on a 10 cm visual analogue scale, Ref reference group, RF rheumatoid factor