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Table 2 Means, standard deviations and rotated two-factor analysis of the Adapted Pain and Attitudes Beliefs Scale – Physiotherapy

From: Can the Pain Attitudes and Beliefs Scales be adapted for use in the context of osteoarthritis with general practitioners and physiotherapists?

PABS-PT item FactorbFactorb
Mean (SD)Item Loading12
If patients complain of pain during exercise, I worry that damage is being caused.2.42 (1.05)0.650.65 
If therapy does not result in a reduction in pain caused by osteoarthritis, there is a high risk of severe restrictions in the long term.3.40 (1.22)0.580.64 
Patients with pain caused by osteoarthritis should preferably practice only pain-free movements.2.45 (1.07)0.600.62 
Pain is a nociceptive stimulus, indicating tissue damage.2.65 (1.15)0.630.60 
The best advice for pain caused by osteoarthritis is: ‘Take care’ and ‘Make no unnecessary movements’.1.53 (0.77)0.590.59 
Patients who have suffered osteoarthritic pain should avoid activities that stress the joint.2.88 (1.22)0.600.59 
Pain reduction is a precondition for the restoration of normal functioning.3.70 (1.22)0.590.58 
The severity of tissue damage determines the level of pain.2.14 (1.08)0.590.52 
Not enough effort is made to find the underlying organic causes of pain caused by osteoarthritis.3.18 (1.07)0.480.51 
Pain caused by osteoarthritis indicates the presence of organic injury.3.06 (1.09)0.540.51 
Reduction of daily physical exertion is a significant factor in treating pain caused by osteoarthritis.2.43 (1.20)0.510.51 
If osteoarthritic pain increases in severity, I immediately adjust the intensity of my treatment accordingly.3.89 (1.07)0.500.50 
It is the task of the physiotherapist or GP to remove the cause of osteoarthritic pain.2.29 (1.16)0.470.47 
Increased pain indicates new tissue damage or the spread of existing damage.2.85 (1.09)0.550.47 
There is no effective treatment to eliminate pain caused by osteoarthritis.a2.40 (1.20)0.24  
Psychological stress can contribute to pain caused by osteoarthritis even in the absence of significant tissue damage.5.02 (0.87)−0.27 0.62
Functional limitations associated with pain caused by osteoarthritis are the result of psychosocial factors.3.46 (1.04)0.18 0.59
Knowledge of the tissue damage is not necessary for effective therapy.4.05 (1.29)−0.24 0.55
The cause of osteoarthritic pain is unknown.2.86 (1.08)0.06 0.54
A patient suffering from severe pain caused by osteoarthritis will benefit from physical exercise.a5.07 (0.97)−0.20  
  1. GP general practitioner, PABS-PT Pain and Attitudes Beliefs Scale – Physiotherapy, SD standard deviation
  2. aindicates items that did not load on to any factor with a score a score greater than .45. Only item scores greater than .45 are included on the table. Scores shown in bold indicate those that comprised the factor. bFactor names: 1 = Biomedical, 2 = Behavioural