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Table 1 Characteristics and levels of activity of patients with axial spondyloarthritis versus controls

From: Physical activity in patients with axial spondyloarthritis in a multi-ethnic south-east Asian country

Characteristic AxSpA
N = 74
Controls
N = 2679
P value
Current age, median (IQR), years 37.0 (26.3) 51.0 (23.0) < 0.01
Sex, male, n (%) 56 (75.7) 1201 (44.8) < 0.01
Race, Chinese, n (%) 65 (87.8) 1783 (66.6) < 0.01
Body mass index, median (IQR), kg m−2 24.1 (5.1) 23.6 (5.5) 0.29
Smoking status
 Currently smoking, n (%) 26 (35.1) 335 (12.5) < 0.01
 Ex-smoker, n (%) 48 (64.9) 450 (16.8)  
 Never smoked, n (%) 0 (0) 1894 (70.7)  
Alcohol drinkers, n (%) 48 (65.8) 1660 (62.0) 0.35
Education level
 Secondary and below, n (%) 74 (100) 1352 (50.5) < 0.01
 Diploma or equivalent, n (%) 0 (0) 674 (25.2)  
 Degree, n (%) 0 (0) 653 (24.4)  
Employed, n (%) 57 (77.0) 1798 (67.1) 0.07
Total monthly household income*
  < SGD $2000, n (%) 12 (16.2) 633 (23.6) 0.23
 SGD $2000–3999, n (%) 21 (28.4) 686 (25.6)  
 SGD$4000–5999, n (%) 17 (23.0) 481 (18.0)  
  ≥ SGD$6000, n (%) 24 (32.4) 629 (23.5)  
Co-morbidities
 Hypertension, n (%) 11 (14.9) 499 (18.6) 0.41
 Diabetes mellitus, n (%) 3 (4.1) 246 (9.2) 0.09
 Hyperlipidemia, n (%) 6 (8.1) 681 (25.4) < 0.01
 Coronary artery disease, n (%) 4 (5.4) 105 (3.9) 0.33
 Chronic kidney disease, n (%) 2 (2.7) 18 (0.67) 0.10
WHO recommendations on physical activity for health
 Meets WHO recommendations, n (%) 57 (77.0) 2403 (89.7) < 0.01
Median time of total physical activity on average per day (IQR), minutes 60 (107.1) 44.3 (82.1) 0.07
Median time spent on work-related physical activity on average per day (IQR), minutes 0 (31.0) 0 (34.3) 0.38
Median time spent on travel-related physical activity on average per day (IQR), minutes 13.6 (36.4) 20 (34.3) 0.07
Median time spent on recreational-related physical activity on average per day (IQR), minutes 13.9 (51.4) 0 (17.1) 0.01
Doing no work-, transport-, or recreation-related physical activity, n (%) 9 (12.2) 240 (9.0) 0.34
WHO classification of physical activity level
 Low level of physical activity, n (%) 17 (23.0) 1551 (57.9) < 0.01
 Moderate level of physical activity, n (%) 25 (33.8) 303 (11.3)  
 High level of physical activity, n (%) 32 (43.2) 825 (30.8)  
 High level of sedentary activity§, n (%) 42 (56.8) 966 (36.1) < 0.01
  1. Abbreviation
  2. AxSpA Axial spondyloarthritis, IQR interquartile range, SGD Singapore dollar, WHO World Health Organization
  3. *Some participants in the control group did not provide information on the household income.
  4. †Meeting WHO recommendations on physical activity for health includes: (i) 150 min of moderate-intensity physical activity or (ii) 75 min of vigorous-intensity physical activity or (iii) An equivalent combination of moderate- and vigorous-intensity physical activity achieving at least 600 MET-minutes
  5. §Defined as more than 8 h of sedentary activity