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Table 2 The association between CVD vascular biomarkers, demographics, covariates and OA radiographic and ultrasonographic variables

From: Biomarkers of cardiovascular risk across phenotypes of osteoarthritis

  CVD risk markers (dependent variables)
AIx β (95% CI) PWV β (95% CI) ABI β (95% CI)
Patients in MUST, OPC and UKPC Only MUST
 Age years, mean (range) 0.27 (0.21–0.33)** 0.12 (0.11–0.13)** − 0.00 (− 0.01–0.00)
 Female gender, n (%) 6.38 (5.26–7.49)* − 0.22 (− 0.42- -0.02)* − 0.10 (− 0.15—0.06)**
 Smoking daily, n (%) 3.60 (2.19–5.01)** 0.15 (− 0.20–0.50) − 0.05 (− 0.11–0.02)
 Higher education, n (%) −0.06 (− 1.77–1.65) − 0.03 (− 0.39–0.32) 0.02 (− 0.02–0.06)
 BMI kg/m2, mean (SD) −0.05 (− 0.14–0.04) 0.06 (0.04–0.09)** 0.00 (− 0.00–0.01)
 CRP mg/L, mean (SD) − 0.02 (− 0.10–0.06) 0.03 (0.01–0.05)* 0.00 (− 0.00–0.00)
 Use of NSAIDs 1.00 (− 1.11–3.11) 0.14 (− 0.31–0.58) − 0.02 (− 0.07–0.03)
 MHAQ 1.30 (−1.79–4.38) − 0.16 (− 0.80–0.48) −0.00 (− 0.68–0.07)
 Regular exercise n (%) −1.59 (− 3.63–0.45) −0.10 (0.53–0.34) −0.02 (0.08–0.05)
 Heart rate (beats/min) −0.45 (− 048- -0.41)** 0.04 (0.03–0.05)** −0.00 (− 0.00–0.00)
Patients in MUST only Only MUST
 Radiographic osteophytes
Hand KL
0.07 (0.01–0.13)* 0.00 (−0.01–0.02) 0.00 (− 0.00–0.00)
 Radiographic osteophytes
Lower limb
− 0.19 (− 0.66–0.29) −0.04 (− 0.15–0.07) 0.01 (0.00–0.02)*
 US PD Hand 0.41 (− 1.45–2.27) 0.05 (− 0.36–0.46) −0.01(− 0.05–0.03)
 US GS Hand 0.28 (− 0.06–0.63) −0.04 (− 0.12–0.03) 0.00 (− 0.00–0.01)
 US GS Lower limb −0.84 (− 2.64–0.96) −0.06 (− 0.47–0.34) 0.01 (− 0.03–0.05)
 US osteophytes Hand 0.09 (0.02–0.16)* −0.00 (− 0.00–0.00) 0.00 (− 0.00–0.00)
 US osteophytes Lower limb 0.07 (−1.39–1.54) −0.19 (− 0.52–0.13) 0.02 (− 0.02–0.05)
  1. Dependent variables in separated models. N number, BMI body mass index, CRP C-reactive protein, NSAIDs non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, AIx augmentation index, PWV pulse wave velocity. BP blood pressure. MUST-OA persons in MUST with osteoarthritis, OCP Oslo community controls, UKPC UK population controls, AIx augmentation index, PWV pulse wave velocity, ABI ankle-brachial index
  2. All models adjusted for age and gender. Linear regression models β beta coefficient, CI confidence interval, n number, KL Kellgren Lawrence, PD power Doppler GS grey scale *p < 0.05**p < 0.00