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Table 1 Social and other risk factors (number, percent) in adults, cross-sectional national survey in Bangladesh, 2015

From: Prevalence of musculoskeletal conditions and related disabilities in Bangladeshi adults: a cross-sectional national survey

Risk factors Urban Rural Men Women All
(n = 716) (n = 1127) (n = 892) (n = 951) (n = 1843)
Age, years
 18–34 296 (41.3) 415 (36.8) 217 (24.3) 494 (51.9) 711 (38.6)
 35–54 306 (42.7) 468 (41.5) 422 (47.3) 352 (37.0) 774 (42.0)
 55–99 114 (15.9) 244 (21.7) 253 (28.4) 105 (11.0) 358 (19.4)
Occupation
 Homemakers 254 (35.5) 495 (43.9) 0 (0.0) 749 (78.8) 749 (40.7)
 Laborer 81 (11.3) 161 (14.3) 209 (23.4) 33 (3.5) 242 (13.1)
 Business professional 111 (15.5) 75 (6.7) 181 (20.3) 5 (0.5) 186 (10.1)
 Service holder 96 (13.4) 29 (2.6) 98 (11.0) 27 (2.8) 125 (6.8)
 Rickshaw/ Auto-Rick/ Van puller 27 (3.8) 44 (3.9) 70 (7.9) 1 (0.1) 71 (3.8)
 Cultivator 5 (0.7) 164 (14.6) 168 (18.9) 1 (0.1) 169 (9.2)
 Others 142 (19.8) 159 (14.1) 166 (18.6) 135 (14.2) 301 (16.3)
Education level
 No formal education (0) 143 (20.0) 421 (37.4) 267 (29.9) 297 (31.2) 564 (30.6)
 Any primary education (1–5) 131 (18.3) 325 (28.8) 233 (26.1) 223 (23.4) 456 (24.7)
 Any secondary education (6–10) 232 (32.4) 306 (27.2) 246 (27.6) 292 (30.7) 538 (29.2)
 Above secondary (> = 11) 210 (29.3) 75 (6.7) 146 (16.4) 139 (14.6) 285 (15.5)
Wealth index quartilesa
 1st 75 (10.5) 401 (35.6) 206 (23.1) 270 (28.4) 476 (25.8)
 2nd 108 (15.1) 354 (31.4) 220 (24.7) 220 (25.4) 462 (25.1)
 3rd 203 (28.4) 245 (21.7) 231 (25.9) 217 (22.8) 448 (24.3)
 4th 330 (46.1) 127 (11.3) 235 (26.3) 222 (23.3) 457 (24.8)
Overweight (body mass index≥25 Kg/m2) 225 (31.4) 167 (14.8) 148 (16.6) 244 (25.7) 392 (21.3)
History of physical traumab 78 (10.9) 100 (8.9) 88 (9.9) 90 (9.5) 178 (9.7)
Smoking, ever 207 (28.9) 392 (34.9) 583 (65.4) 16 (1.7) 599 (32.5)
Diabetes mellitusc 73 (10.2) 36 (3.2) 50 (5.6) 59 (6.2) 109 (5.9)
Strenuous physical activityd 124 (17.3) 230 (20.4) 336 (37.7) 18 (1.9) 354 (19.2)
  1. aThe wealth index was constructed using principal component analysis out of a list of 20 household assets (See Methods section for details);
  2. bPhysical trauma during last 12 months that needed medical treatment with or without residual damage, e.g., injuries due to accidents while travelling by road, trauma during occupational works while working in farming lands or factories, physical assault, etc.;
  3. cDiabetes was defined as random capillary glucose level > =11.1 or medication for diabetes;
  4. dFifth quintile of the MET-minutes distribution of work-related physical activity. Commutation and leisure time physical activities were not considered because these were negligible contributors (See Methods section for details)