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  1. Composite responder endpoints feature frequently in rheumatology due to the multifaceted nature of many of these conditions. Current analysis methods used to analyse these endpoints discard much of the data us...

    Authors: Martina McMenamin, Michael J. Grayling, Anna Berglind and James M. S. Wason

    Citation: BMC Rheumatology 2021 5:54

    Content type: Software

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  2. In addition to the well-known role of vitamin D in calcium homeostasis and bone metabolism, vitamin D is important in the modulation of the immune system and inflammatory processes. Vitamin D deficiency is com...

    Authors: Rosalie Magro, Christian Saliba, Liberato Camilleri, Christian Scerri and Andrew A. Borg

    Citation: BMC Rheumatology 2021 5:53

    Content type: Research

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  3. Precision medicine, as a personalized medicine approach based on biomarkers, is a booming field. In general, physicians and patients have a positive attitude toward precision medicine, but their knowledge and ...

    Authors: Sophie Ruel-Gagné, David Simonyan, Jean Légaré, Louis Bessette, Paul R. Fortin, Diane Lacaille, Maman Joyce Dogba and Laëtitia Michou

    Citation: BMC Rheumatology 2021 5:52

    Content type: Research article

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  4. Improvements in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) have made it possible to achieve treatment goals. It has been reported that both residual synovitis caused by RA and the patients’ subjective symptoms...

    Authors: Masao Nawata, Kazuki Someya, Masashi Funada, Yuya Fujita, Atsushi Nagayasu, Kazuyoshi Saito and Yoshiya Tanaka

    Citation: BMC Rheumatology 2021 5:49

    Content type: Research

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  5. Patients with Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA) may experience psychological distress (depression, anxiety) in addition to their physical symptoms. People with RA may also experience disease-specific distress (DSD), r...

    Authors: Linda Silke, Othman Kirresh, Jackie Sturt and Heidi Lempp

    Citation: BMC Rheumatology 2021 5:51

    Content type: Research article

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  6. Immune-mediated inflammatory diseases (IMID) are characterized by systemic inflammation affecting the joints and bodily organs. Studies examining the association between individual IMIDs and the risk of Alzhei...

    Authors: Michael J. Booth, Lindsay C. Kobayashi, Mary R. Janevic, Daniel Clauw and John D. Piette

    Citation: BMC Rheumatology 2021 5:48

    Content type: Research

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  7. A growing population of older adults and improved effective treatments for inflammatory rheumatic diseases will increase the demand for more healthcare resources that already struggle with staggering outpatien...

    Authors: Alen Brkic, Jung G. Kim, Glenn Haugeberg and Andreas P. Diamantopoulos

    Citation: BMC Rheumatology 2021 5:43

    Content type: Review

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  8. The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of musculoskeletal complaints, rheumatologic diseases, and disability among the Zoroastrian population in Iran.

    Authors: Ali Dehghan, Hossein Soleimani Salehabadi, Ahmadreza Jamshidi, Zohre Kamali, Mojgan Mali, Seyedeh Tahereh Faezi, Azarakhsh Baghdadi, Sogol Alesaeidi, Fatemeh Sahraei, Niloufar Azizi, Sanaz Zand, Sara Sadat Yasini, Maryam Namazi, Atefe Daya, Ryan Nazemian, Farimah Shamsi…

    Citation: BMC Rheumatology 2021 5:46

    Content type: Research article

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  9. Management of psoriasis patients with arthralgia suffering from suspected psoriatic arthritis (PsA) requires an interdisciplinary approach involving dermatologists and rheumatologists. The aim of the study was...

    Authors: Jana Ziob, Charlotte Behning, Peter Brossart, Thomas Bieber, Dagmar Wilsmann-Theis and Valentin Sebastian Schäfer

    Citation: BMC Rheumatology 2021 5:45

    Content type: Research

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  10. Educational attainment is moderately heritable and inversely associated with the risk of rheumatoid arthritis. However, the causality from educational attainment on rheumatoid arthritis remained unknown. Here,...

    Authors: Guiwu Huang, Jiahao Cai, Wenchang Li, Yanlin Zhong, Weiming Liao and Peihui Wu

    Citation: BMC Rheumatology 2021 5:47

    Content type: Research

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  11. Inflammatory arthritis (IA) patients have been identified as at greater risk of severe illness from COVID-19. It is likely that lockdown restrictions (enforced by the UK government in response to the COVID-19 ...

    Authors: Emma Caton, Hema Chaplin, Lewis Carpenter, Melissa Sweeney, Hsiu Yen Tung, Savia de Souza, James Galloway, Elena Nikiphorou and Sam Norton

    Citation: BMC Rheumatology 2021 5:58

    Content type: Research

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  12. We describe Raynauds phenomenon (RP), potential very early diagnosis of systemic sclerosis (VEDOSS), and systemic sclerosis (SSc) in Veterans deployed in support of Post-9/11 operations. We sought to describe ...

    Authors: Tracy M. Frech, Maureen A. Murtaugh, Megan Amuan and Mary Jo Pugh

    Citation: BMC Rheumatology 2021 5:42

    Content type: Research article

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  13. Galactosialidosis (GS) is a rare inherited lysosomal storage disorder (LSD) which is characterized by a defect in the lysosomal glycoprotein catabolism. We report, for the first time, the case of a child affec...

    Authors: F. Verkuil, A. M. Bosch, P. A. A. Struijs, R. Hemke and J. M. van den Berg

    Citation: BMC Rheumatology 2021 5:41

    Content type: Case report

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  14. This study aimed to investigate the hospitalisation rates and the reasons for hospitalisation in patients with polymyalgia rheumatica (PMR). Furthermore, it aimed to clarify the impact of a newly established F...

    Authors: Stavros Chrysidis, Philip Rask Lage-Hansen, Nikoletta Svendsen and Andreas P. Diamantopoulos

    Citation: BMC Rheumatology 2021 5:37

    Content type: Research

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  15. Ocular manifestations are common in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Retinopathy has previously been linked to disease severity and might have a significant impact on the patient’s quality of life and has a...

    Authors: Hamidreza Bashiri, Nooshin Karimi, Shayan Mostafaei, Azarakhsh Baghdadi, Mohammad Nejadhosseinian and Seyedeh Tahereh Faezi

    Citation: BMC Rheumatology 2021 5:34

    Content type: Research

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  16. Patients with non-radiographic axial spondyloarthritis experience negative impacts on sleep, work productivity, and activity impairment. Ixekizumab, a monoclonal antibody selectively targeting interleukin-17A,...

    Authors: Atul Deodhar, Philip Mease, Helena Marzo-Ortega, Theresa Hunter, David Sandoval, Andris Kronbergs, Steven Lauzon, Ann Leung and Victoria Navarro-Compán

    Citation: BMC Rheumatology 2021 5:50

    Content type: Research

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  17. This analysis assessed improvements in patients with radiographic axial spondyloarthritis (r-axSpA) treated with ixekizumab in the Assessment of Spondyloarthritis International Society (ASAS) treatment respons...

    Authors: Atul A. Deodhar, Philip J. Mease, Proton Rahman, Victoria Navarro-Compán, Vibeke Strand, Theresa Hunter, Rebecca Bolce, Luis Leon, Steve Lauzon and Helena Marzo-Ortega

    Citation: BMC Rheumatology 2021 5:35

    Content type: Research

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  18. Eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis (EGPA) is an anti-neutrophil antibody (ANCA)-associated necrotizing vasculitis, which predominantly affects small to medium vessels, and is associated with asthma ...

    Authors: Ken-ei Sada, Atsushi Miyauchi, Daisuke Hashimoto, Riku Ino, Shigeru Nojima, Shingo Yamanaka and Masafumi Kawamura

    Citation: BMC Rheumatology 2021 5:28

    Content type: Case report

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  19. Patients with axial spondyloarthritis (axSpA) may experience spinal stiffness and pain, leading to reduced physical function and quality of life. Despite the benefits of physical activity (PA) and exercise, pr...

    Authors: Jie Kie Phang, Andrew Yu Keat Khor, Yu Heng Kwan, Chin Teck Ng and Warren Fong

    Citation: BMC Rheumatology 2021 5:38

    Content type: Research

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  20. Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) are the leading cause of death in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Coronary artery calcium (CAC) score quantifies the severity of atherosclerosis. We estimated CVD risk u...

    Authors: Se Hee Kim, Sang-Heon Lee, Hae-Rim Kim and Hong Ki Min

    Citation: BMC Rheumatology 2021 5:39

    Content type: Research

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  21. Elevated serum urate (SU) concentration is the central risk factor for the development of gout. The aim of this study was to examine the incidence of gout in people with low and normal SU levels (< 7.00 mg/dL).

    Authors: Philip C. Robinson, Christopher Frampton, Amanda Phipps-Green, Tuhina Neogi, Lisa Stamp, William Taylor, Tony R. Merriman and Nicola Dalbeth

    Citation: BMC Rheumatology 2021 5:33

    Content type: Research

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  22. The aims of our study were two-fold. Firstly, to determine if there is an association between gout and OSA in a representative Australian adult population. Secondly, to explore associations between gout and pa...

    Authors: Julia New-Tolley, Amy C. Reynolds, Sarah L. Appleton, Tiffany K. Gill, Susan Lester, Robert J. Adams and Catherine L. Hill

    Citation: BMC Rheumatology 2021 5:30

    Content type: Research

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  23. Studies suggest an increased prevalence of cognitive impairment (CI) among people with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). However, most prior studies have used convenience samples which are subject to selection biases...

    Authors: Michael J. Booth, Mary R. Janevic, Lindsay C. Kobayashi, Daniel J. Clauw and John D. Piette

    Citation: BMC Rheumatology 2021 5:24

    Content type: Research

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  24. Inflammation of patients joints with severe disease activity of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) has already been visualized and quantified by 2-[18F]fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose positron emission computed tomography ([18F]...

    Authors: Charline Rinkin, Pacôme Fosse, Olivier Malaise, Nathalie Chapelier, Jil Horrion, Laurence Seidel, Adelin Albert, Roland Hustinx and Michel G. Malaise

    Citation: BMC Rheumatology 2021 5:31

    Content type: Research article

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  25. Vasculitides comprise a group of rare diseases which affect less than 5 in 10.000 individuals. Most types of vasculitis can become organ- and life-threatening and are characterized by chronicity, high morbidit...

    Authors: Christof Iking-Konert, Pia Wallmeier, Sabrina Arnold, Sabine Adler, Kirsten de Groot, Bernhard Hellmich, Bimba F. Hoyer, Konstanze Holl-Ulrich, Gabriele Ihorst, Margit Kaufmann, Ina Kötter, Ulf Müller-Ladner, T. Magnus, Jürgen Rech, Fabian Schubach, Hendrik Schulze-Koops…

    Citation: BMC Rheumatology 2021 5:40

    Content type: Study protocol

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  26. Risk of myocardial infarction (MI) is elevated in ankylosing spondylitis and psoriatic arthritis (AS/PsA) compared to the general population. We evaluated the risk of MI related to the use of tumor necrosis fa...

    Authors: Rachael Stovall, Christine Peloquin, David Felson, Tuhina Neogi and Maureen Dubreuil

    Citation: BMC Rheumatology 2021 5:36

    Content type: Research

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  27. Anti-synthetase syndrome is the collection of myositis and/or interstitial lung disease with the presence of various antibodies directed against an aminoacyl transfer RNA synthetase. Anti Jo − 1 antibody is th...

    Authors: C. T. Rosa, A. S. Thilakarathne, L. A. Senevirathne, A. Wijeyeratna and D. Munidasa

    Citation: BMC Rheumatology 2021 5:25

    Content type: Case report

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  28. Our knowledge of immune-mediated inflammatory disease (IMID) aetiology and pathogenesis has improved greatly over recent years, however, very little is known of the factors that trigger disease relapses (flare...

    Authors: Fiona Rayner, Amy E. Anderson, Kenneth F. Baker, Christopher D. Buckley, Bernard Dyke, Sally Fenton, Andrew Filer, Carl S. Goodyear, Catharien M. U. Hilkens, Shaun Hiu, Sean Kerrigan, Mariola Kurowska-Stolarska, Fiona Matthews, Iain McInnes, Wan-Fai Ng, Arthur G. Pratt…

    Citation: BMC Rheumatology 2021 5:22

    Content type: Study protocol

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  29. Research on adherence interventions in rheumatology is limited by methodological issues, particularly heterogeneous outcomes. We aimed to describe researchers’ experiences with conducting interventional studie...

    Authors: Shahrzad Salmasi, Ayano Kelly, Susan J. Bartlett, Maarten de Wit, Lyn March, Allison Tong, Peter Tugwell, Kathleen Tymms, Suzanne Verstappen and Mary A. De Vera

    Citation: BMC Rheumatology 2021 5:26

    Content type: Research article

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  30. Despite progress that has been made in the treatment of many immune-mediated inflammatory diseases (IMIDs), there remains a need for improved treatments. Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) provide the highest...

    Authors: Michael J. Grayling, Theophile Bigirumurame, Svetlana Cherlin, Luke Ouma, Haiyan Zheng and James M. S. Wason

    Citation: BMC Rheumatology 2021 5:21

    Content type: Research article

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  31. Pain and fatigue are persistent problems in people with rheumatoid arthritis. Central sensitisation (CS) may contribute to pain and fatigue, even when treatment has controlled inflammatory disease. This study ...

    Authors: Onosi S. Ifesemen, Daniel F. McWilliams, Eamonn Ferguson, Richard Wakefield, Kehinde Akin-Akinyosoye, Deborah Wilson, Dorothy Platts, Susan Ledbury and David A. Walsh

    Citation: BMC Rheumatology 2021 5:23

    Content type: Study protocol

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  32. Patients with Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE) often experience pain and other symptoms that negatively impact quality of life. Interventions that enhance the use of behavioral and cognitive coping strategie...

    Authors: Kelli D. Allen, Tyler Beauchamp, Christine Rini, Francis J. Keefe, Kim L. Bennell, Rebecca J. Cleveland, Kimberlea Grimm, Katie Huffman, David G. Hu, Andres Santana, Shruti Saxena Beem, Julie Walker and Saira Z. Sheikh

    Citation: BMC Rheumatology 2021 5:20

    Content type: Research article

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  33. Neuropsychiatric manifestations occur in up to 75% of adult systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) patients and are one of the major causes of death in SLE patients. Cognitive dysfunction is a typical clinical fea...

    Authors: Li Lu, Wei Kong, Kangxing Zhou, Jinglei Chen, Yayi Hou, Huan Dou and Jun Liang

    Citation: BMC Rheumatology 2021 5:18

    Content type: Research article

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  34. Chronic Recurrent Multifocal Osteomyelitis (CRMO) is a condition characterized by sterile bone inflammation, usually occurring in childhood. Although the etiology remains unclear, this condition has been assoc...

    Authors: Hon Yan Ng, Orlee R. Guttman and Lori B. Tucker

    Citation: BMC Rheumatology 2021 5:16

    Content type: Case report

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  35. Polyarteritis nodosa is a type of vasculitis affecting medium- and small-sized arteries that has been associated with hepatitis B but does not have an established relationship with autoimmune hepatitis. Here w...

    Authors: Freda Kennedy, Rachel Kapelow, Bilge D. Kalyon, Nitzan C. Roth, Arvind Rishi and Maria-Louise Barilla-LaBarca

    Citation: BMC Rheumatology 2021 5:17

    Content type: Case report

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  36. Psoriatic arthritis (PsA) presents a unique clinical challenge. Affecting joints, skin, nails, and other organs, it is associated with various comorbidities and has a significant impact on quality of life, soc...

    Authors: Gareth T. Jones, Gary J. Macfarlane, Karen Forrest Keenan, Paul McNamee, Aileen R. Neilson, Stefan Siebert, A. David Burden, Lesley Kay and Philip S. Helliwell

    Citation: BMC Rheumatology 2021 5:19

    Content type: Study protocol

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  37. Fibromyalgia is characterized by chronic widespread pain, and more than half of patients with fibromyalgia report that weather-related variables aggravate their symptoms. However, the differences in actual sym...

    Authors: Kazuhiro Hayashi, Kenji Miki, Noriyuki Hayashi, Ryota Hashimoto and Masao Yukioka

    Citation: BMC Rheumatology 2021 5:14

    Content type: Research article

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  38. The self-reported Health Assessment Questionnaire (HAQ) is specifically designed to assess disability in arthritic patients. In many studies women report higher functional disability than men. The reasons for ...

    Authors: Sidona-Valentina Bala, Maria L. E. Andersson, Kristina Forslind, Björn Svensson and Ingiäld Hafström

    Citation: BMC Rheumatology 2021 5:13

    Content type: Research article

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  39. Adult onset Still’s disease (AOSD) is a rare inflammatory disorder that classically presents with high spiking fevers, evanescent rash, and arthritis. The diagnosis is one of exclusion and can be further compl...

    Authors: Arash Mollaeian, Jingjing Chen, Nina N. Chan, Gregory A. Nizialek and Christopher J. Haas

    Citation: BMC Rheumatology 2021 5:12

    Content type: Case report

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    The Correction to this article has been published in BMC Rheumatology 2021 5:29

  40. Patients with idiopathic inflammatory myopathy and autoantibodies directed against melanoma differentiation-associated protein 5 (MDA5) characteristically have interstitial lung disease, severe cutaneous invol...

    Authors: Meghan E. Ryan, Daniel Cortez, Kelly R. Dietz, Peter Karachunski and Bryce A. Binstadt

    Citation: BMC Rheumatology 2021 5:8

    Content type: Case report

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  41. B cells are critical mediators of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and lupus nephritis (LN), and antinuclear antibodies can be found in the serum of approximately 98% of patients with SLE. Spleen tyrosine ki...

    Authors: Christopher W. Pohlmeyer, Ching Shang, Pei Han, Zhi-Hua Cui, Randall M. Jones, Astrid S. Clarke, Bernard P. Murray, David A. Lopez, David W. Newstrom, M. David Inzunza, Franziska G. Matzkies, Kevin S. Currie and Julie A. Di Paolo

    Citation: BMC Rheumatology 2021 5:15

    Content type: Research article

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  42. Pyoderma gangrenosum (PG) is an uncommon, idiopathic, ulcerative neutrophilic dermatosis. In many cases, PG is associated with a wide variety of different disorders but SLE in association with PG is relatively...

    Authors: Sing Chiek Teoh, Chun Yang Sim, Seow Lin Chuah, Victoria Kok and Cheng Lay Teh

    Citation: BMC Rheumatology 2021 5:7

    Content type: Case report

    Published on:

  43. An amendment to this paper has been published and can be accessed via the original article.

    Authors: Ruth E. Costello, Antonia Marsden, Mohammad Movahedi, Mark Lunt, Jenny H. Humphreys, Richard Emsley and William G. Dixon

    Citation: BMC Rheumatology 2021 5:11

    Content type: Correction

    Published on:

    The original article was published in BMC Rheumatology 2020 4:4

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