Smolen JS, Aletaha D, McInnes IB. Rheumatoid arthritis. Lancet. 2016;388(10055):2023–38.
Catrina AI, Svensson CI, Malmstrom V, et al. Mechanisms leading from systemic autoimmunity to joint-specific disease in rheumatoid arthritis. Nat Rev Rheumatol. 2017;13(2):79–86.
Mosser DM, Edwards JP. Exploring the full spectrum of macrophage activation. Nat Rev Immunol. 2008;8(12):958–69.
Murphy KM, Weaver C. Janeway’s immunobiology. 9th ed. New York: Garland Science; 2017.
Smolen JS, Aletaha D, Barton A, et al. Rheumatoid arthritis. Nat Rev Dis Primers. 2018;4:18001.
Abhishek A, Doherty M, Kuo CF, et al. Rheumatoid arthritis is getting less frequent-results of a nationwide population-based cohort study. Rheumatology (Oxford). 2017;56(5):736–44.
National Rheumatoid Arthritis Society. What is RA? Available from: https://www.nras.org.uk/what-is-ra-article. Accessed 25 Oct 2019.
Young A, Dixey J, Cox N, et al. How does functional disability in early rheumatoid arthritis (RA) affect patients and their lives? Results of 5 years of follow-up in 732 patients from the Early RA Study (ERAS). Rheumatology (Oxford). 2000;39(6):603–11.
Matcham F, Scott IC, Rayner L, et al. The impact of rheumatoid arthritis on quality-of-life assessed using the SF-36: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Semin Arthritis Rheum. 2014;44(2):123–30.
Smolen JS, Landewé RBM, Bijlsma JWJ, et al. EULAR recommendations for the management of rheumatoid arthritis with synthetic and biological disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs: 2019 update. Ann Rheum Dis. 2020. https://doi.org/10.1136/annrheumdis-2019-216655.
Singh JA, Saag KG, Bridges SL Jr, et al. 2015 American College of Rheumatology guideline for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis. Arthritis Rheumatol. 2016;68(1):1–26.
National Institute for Health and Care Excellence. Drug treatment for rheumatoid arthritis. 2018. Available from: https://pathways.nice.org.uk/pathways/rheumatoid-arthritis#path=view%3A/pathways/rheumatoid-arthritis/drug-treatment-for-rheumatoid-arthritis.xml. Accessed 23 Jan 2018.
Daha NA, Toes RE. Rheumatoid arthritis: are ACPA-positive and ACPA-negative RA the same disease? Nat Rev Rheumatol. 2011;7(4):202–3.
Jilani AA, Mackworth-Young CG. The role of citrullinated protein antibodies in predicting erosive disease in rheumatoid arthritis: a systematic literature review and meta-analysis. Int J Rheumatol. 2015;2015:728610.
Ohmura K, Terao C, Maruya E, et al. Anti-citrullinated peptide antibody-negative RA is a genetically distinct subset: a definitive study using only bone-erosive ACPA-negative rheumatoid arthritis. Rheumatology (Oxford, England). 2010;49(12):2298–304.
Santos-Moreno P, Sánchez G, Castro C. Rheumatoid factor as predictor of response to treatment with anti-TNF alpha drugs in patients with rheumatoid arthritis: results of a cohort study. Medicine. 2019;98(5):e14181.
Sellam J, Hendel-Chavez H, Rouanet S, et al. B cell activation biomarkers as predictive factors for the response to rituximab in rheumatoid arthritis: a six-month, national, multicenter, open-label study. Arthritis Rheum. 2011;63(4):933–8.
Syversen SW, Gaarder PI, Goll GL, et al. High anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide levels and an algorithm of four variables predict radiographic progression in patients with rheumatoid arthritis: results from a 10-year longitudinal study. Ann Rheum Dis. 2008;67(2):212–7.
Cagnotto G, Willim M, Nilsson J-Å, et al. Abatacept in rheumatoid arthritis: survival on drug, clinical outcomes, and their predictors—data from a large national quality register. Arthritis Res Ther. 2020;22(1):15.
Nüßlein HG, Alten R, Galeazzi M, et al. Prognostic factors for abatacept retention in patients who received at least one prior biologic agent: an interim analysis from the observational, prospective ACTION study. BMC Musculoskelet Disord. 2015;16(1):176.
Peichl P, Alten R, Galeazzi M, et al. Abatacept retention and clinical outcomes in Austrian patients with rheumatoid arthritis: real-world data from the 2-year ACTION study. Wien Med Wochenschr. 2020;170(5):132–40.
Pope JE, Rampakakis E, Sampalis J. The durability of abatacept as a first and subsequent biologic and improvement in HAQ from a large multi-site real-world study. Semin Arthritis Rheum. 2015;44(5):499–505.
Choquette D, Bessette L, Alemao E, et al. Persistence rates of abatacept and TNF inhibitors used as first or second biologic DMARDs in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis: 9 years of experience from the Rhumadata® clinical database and registry. Arthritis Res Ther. 2019;21(1):138.
Park J-A, Lee M-Y, Nam JH, et al. Real-world treatment persistence of non-tumor necrosis factor inhibitors versus tumor necrosis factor inhibitors among patients with rheumatoid arthritis in South Korea. Curr Med Res Opin. 2020;36(2):343–51.
Henning S, Groves L, Hurst M, et al. AB0295 change in disease activity and treatment response after abatacept treatment for rheumatoid arthritis: real-world evidence from the UK. Ann Rheum Dis. 2020;79(1):1446–7.
Aletaha D, Maa J-f, Chen S, et al. Effect of disease duration and prior disease-modifying antirheumatic drug use on treatment outcomes in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. Ann Rheum Dis. 2019;78(12):1609.
Molina E, del Rincon I, Restrepo JF, et al. Association of socioeconomic status with treatment delays, disease activity, joint damage, and disability in rheumatoid arthritis. Arthritis Care Res. 2015;67(7):940–6.
van der Heide A, Jacobs JW, Bijlsma JW, et al. The effectiveness of early treatment with “second-line” antirheumatic drugs. A randomized, controlled trial. Ann Intern Med. 1996;124(8):699–707.
Kay J, Jupchurch KS. ACR/EULAR 2010 rheumatoid arthritis classification criteria. Rheumatology. 2012;51(suppl_6):vi5–9.
National Institute for Health and Care Excellence. Rheumatoid arthritis in adults: management. 2018. Available from: https://www.nice.org.uk/guidance/ng100/resources/rheumatoid-arthritis-in-adults-management-pdf-66141531233989.
Ward MM, Guthrie LC, Alba MI. Clinically important changes in individual and composite measures of rheumatoid arthritis activity: thresholds applicable in clinical trials. Ann Rheum Dis. 2015;74(9):1691–6.
National Institute for Health and Care Excellence. Adalimumab, etanercept, infliximab, certolizumab pegol, golimumab, tocilizumab and abatacept for rheumatoid arthritis not previously treated with DMARDs or after conventional DMARDs only have failed. 2016. Available from: https://www.nice.org.uk/guidance/ta375. Accessed 7 May 2020.
Sokolove J, Schiff M, Fleischmann R, et al. Impact of baseline anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide-2 antibody concentration on efficacy outcomes following treatment with subcutaneous abatacept or adalimumab: 2-year results from the AMPLE trial. Ann Rheum Dis. 2016;75(4):709–14.
Gottenberg JE, Ravaud P, Cantagrel A, et al. Positivity for anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide is associated with a better response to abatacept: data from the ‘Orencia and Rheumatoid Arthritis’ registry. Ann Rheum Dis. 2012;71(11):1815–9.
Connolly S, Maldonado M, Schiff M, et al. FRI0039 modulation of the ACPA fine specificity in patients with RA treated with either abatacept or adalimumab in the AMPLE study. Ann Rheum Dis. 2014;73(Suppl 2):395.
Yun H, Xie F, Delzell E, et al. Comparative risk of hospitalized infection associated with biologic agents in rheumatoid arthritis patients enrolled in Medicare. Arthritis Rheumatol. 2016;68(1):56–66.
Paul D, Lobo F, Patel V, et al. FRI0113 comparison of infection-related hospitalization costs in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) treated with ABATACEPT or other targeted disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drugs (TDMARDS). Ann Rheum Dis. 2019;78(Suppl 2):724.
Ozen G, Pedro S, Schumacher R, et al. Safety of abatacept compared with other biologic and conventional synthetic disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs in patients with rheumatoid arthritis: data from an observational study. Arthritis Res Ther. 2019;21(1):141.
Schiff M, Weinblatt ME, Valente R, et al. Head-to-head comparison of subcutaneous abatacept versus adalimumab for rheumatoid arthritis: two-year efficacy and safety findings from AMPLE trial. Ann Rheum Dis. 2014;73(1):86–94.
HM Government. Tackling antimicrobial resistance 2019–2024 - the UK’s five-year national action plan. 2019. Available from: https://assets.publishing.service.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/784894/UK_AMR_5_year_national_action_plan.pdf. Accessed 1 May 2020.
Aladul MI, Fitzpatrick RW, Chapman SR. The effect of new biosimilars in rheumatology and gastroenterology specialities on UK healthcare budgets: results of a budget impact analysis. Res Soc Adm Pharm. 2019;15(3):310–7.
National Institute for Health and Care Excellence. Adalimumab, etanercept, infliximab, certolizumab pegol, golimumab, tocilizumab and abatacept for rheumatoid arthritis not previously treated with DMARDs or after conventional DMARDs only have failed; technology appraisal guidance [TA375]. 2016. Available from: https://www.nice.org.uk/guidance/ta375. Accessed 19 Oct 2020.
National Institute for Health and Care Excellence. Adalimumab, etanercept, infliximab, rituximab and abatacept for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis after the failure of a TNF inhibitor; technology appraisal guidance [TA195]. 2010. Available from: https://www.nice.org.uk/guidance/ta195. Accessed 19 Oct 2020.
NHS England. Commissioning framework for biological medicines (including biosimilar medicines). 2017. Available from: https://www.england.nhs.uk/wp-content/uploads/2017/09/biosimilar-medicines-commissioning-framework.pdf. Accessed 21 Oct 2020.
Alemao E, Johal S, Al MJ, et al. Cost-effectiveness analysis of abatacept compared with adalimumab on background methotrexate in biologic-naive adult patients with rheumatoid arthritis and poor prognosis. Value Health. 2018;21(2):193–202.
National Health Service. The NHS long term plan. 2019. Available from: https://www.longtermplan.nhs.uk/wp-content/uploads/2019/08/nhs-long-term-plan-version-1.2.pdf. Accessed 6 May 2020.
Lewandowski LB, Hsieh E. Global rheumatology in the time of COVID-19. Lancet Rheumatol. 2020;2(5):e254–e5.
Monti S, Balduzzi S, Delvino P, et al. Clinical course of COVID-19 in a series of patients with chronic arthritis treated with immunosuppressive targeted therapies. Ann Rheum Dis. 2020;79(5):667.